mysql三种安装方式 你知道了哪种

发布于 2022-4-25 09:45
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作者 | java星星。
来源 | 今日头条

安装mysql服务

  • mysql安装方式有三种:
  • 源代码:编译安装

二进制格式的程序包:展开至特定路径,并经过简单配置后即可使用程序包管理器管理的程序包:rpm:有两种OS Vendor:操作系统发行商提供的项目官方提供的deb

yum 安装

[root@localhost ~]# ls /etc/yum.repos.d/
redhat.repo  xx.repo
[root@localhost ~]# rpm -ivh http://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql57-community-release-el7-10.noarch.rpm
获取http://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql57-community-release-el7-10.noarch.rpm
警告:/var/tmp/rpm-tmp.pSGnsG: 头V3 DSA/SHA1 Signature, 密钥 ID 5072e1f5: NOKEY
准备中...                          ################################# [100%]
正在升级/安装...
   1:mysql57-community-release-el7-10 ################################# [100%]
[root@localhost ~]# ls /etc/yum.repos.d/
mysql-community.repo  mysql-community-source.repo  redhat.repo  xx.repo
[root@localhost ~]# yum -y install mysql-community-server mysql-community-client mysql-community-common mysql-community-devel
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, product-id, search-disabled-repos, subscription-
              : manager
This system is not registered with an entitlement server. You can use subscription-manager to register.
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mysql-community-client.x86_64 0:5.7.23-1.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: mysql-community-libs(x86-64) >= 5.7.9 for package: mysql-community-client-5.7.23-1.el7.x86_64 
....
Installed:
  mysql-community-client.x86_64 0:5.7.23-1.el7
  mysql-community-common.x86_64 0:5.7.23-1.el7
  mysql-community-devel.x86_64 0:5.7.23-1.el7
  mysql-community-libs.x86_64 0:5.7.23-1.el7
  mysql-community-libs-compat.x86_64 0:5.7.23-1.el7
  mysql-community-server.x86_64 0:5.7.23-1.el7
Replaced:
  mariadb-libs.x86_64 1:5.5.56-2.el7

Complete!

启动mysql服务就ok

[root@localhost ~]# systemctl start mysqld
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl status mysqld

二进制安装mysql

-下载mysql二进制安装包

wget https://downloads.mysql.com/archives/get/file/mysql-5.7.22-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz

-创建用户和组

[root@localhost ~]# groupadd -r mysql
[root@localhost ~]# useradd -M -s /sbin/nologin -g mysql mysql
[root@localhost ~]#

解压软件至/usr/local/

[root@localhost ~]# tar -xf  mysql-5.7.22-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.gz -C /usr/l
ocal/

创建软连接

[root@localhost ~]# cd /usr/local/
[root@localhost local]# ln -s mysql-5.7.22-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64/ mysql
[root@localhost local]#

修改目录/usr/local/mysql的属组属组

[root@localhost local]# cd
[root@localhost ~]# chown -R mysql.mysql /usr/local/mysql*
[root@localhost ~]# 

-添加环境变量

[root@localhost ~]#  echo 'export PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH' > /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh
[root@localhost ~]# . /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh 重新读下
[root@localhost ~]# 

建立数据存放目录

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir /opt/data
[root@localhost ~]# chown -R mysql.mysql /opt/data/
[root@localhost ~]#

初始化数据库

[root@localhost ~]# /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql --datadir=/opt/data
2019-08-20T04:36:47.124341Z 0 [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated. Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see documentation for more details).
2019-08-20T04:36:47.512965Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: New log files created, LSN=45790
2019-08-20T04:36:47.568170Z 0 [Warning] InnoDB: Creating foreign key constraint system tables.
2019-08-20T04:36:47.710963Z 0 [Warning] No existing UUID has been found, so we assume that this is the first time that this server has been started. Generating a new UUID: 1ee4d515-c304-11e9-bd54-000c292184e7.
2019-08-20T04:36:47.711625Z 0 [Warning] Gtid table is not ready to be used. Table 'mysql.gtid_executed' cannot be opened.
2019-08-20T04:36:47.712295Z 1 [Note] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: *!J3wNVfewsf    #复制这串密码,数据库初始化只能一次,用于第一次登录
[root@localhost ~]#  #这个临时密码是随机的

生成配置文件

[root@localhost ~]# cat > /etc/my.cnf <<EOF
> [mysqld]
> basedir = /usr/local/mysql
> datadir = /opt/data
> socket = /tmp/mysql.sock
> port = 3306
> pid-file = /opt/data/mysql.pid
> user = mysql
> skip-name-resolve
> EOF
[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/my.cnf
[mysqld]
basedir = /usr/local/mysql
datadir = /opt/data
socket = /tmp/mysql.sock
port = 3306
pid-file = /opt/data/mysql.pid
user = mysql
skip-name-resolve

-配置服务启动脚本

[root@localhost ~]# cp -a /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
[root@localhost ~]# sed -ri 's#^(basedir=).*#\1/usr/local/mysql#g' /etc/init.d/mysqld
[root@localhost ~]# sed -ri 's#^(datadir=).*#\1/opt/data#g' /etc/init.d/mysqld

启动脚本

[root@localhost ~]# /etc/init.d/mysqld start
Starting MySQL.Logging to '/opt/data/localhost.localdomain.err'.
 SUCCESS! 
[root@localhost ~]#
  • 使用临时密码登录
  • 修改数据库密码
[root@localhost ~]# /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -uroot -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.7.22
Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql> set password = password('wyh123456');
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
mysql>

编译安装(源码安装)

下载、上传源码安装包

wget http://downloads.mysql.com/archives/get/file/mysql-5.7.26.tar.gz
(https://downloads.mysql.com/archives/手动下载,上传)
下载

安装依赖工具

[root@localhost ~]# yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ ncurses ncurses-devel cmake
安装过程省略……
[root@localhost ~]#

下载cmake编译工具

[root@localhost ~]# cd /usr/src/
[root@localhost  src]wget http://www.cmake.org/files/v2.8/cmake-2.8.12.1.tar.gz
下载过程略。。。
[root@localhost  src]# ls
cmake-2.8.12.1.tar.gz

解压

[root@localhost  src]# tar xf cmake-2.8.12.1.tar.gz 
[root@localhost  src]# ls
cmake-2.8.12.1  cmake-2.8.12.1.tar.gz

编译安装cmake

[root@localhost ~]# cd /usr/src/cmake-2.8.12.1
[root@localhost  cmake-2.8.12.1]# ./configure && make && make install

编译安装mysql5.7.26

[root@localhost cmake-2.8.12.1]# cd /usr/src/
[[root@localhost  src]wget http://downloads.mysql.com/archives/get/file/mysql-5.7.26.tar.gz
[[root@localhost src]# ls
cmake-2.8.12.1  cmake-2.8.12.1.tar.gz  kernels  mysql-5.7.26.tar.gz

[root@localhost  src]# tar xf mysql-5.7.26.tar.gz 
[root@localhost  src]# cd mysql-5.7.26
[root@96 mysql-5.7.26]#  cmake \
-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql \
-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/usr/local/mysql/data \
-DSYSCONFDIR=/etc \
-DWITH_MYISAM_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_MEMORY_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_READLINE=1 \
-DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock \
-DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306 \
-DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=1 \
-DWITH_PARTITION_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DEXTRA_CHARSETS=all \
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 \
-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci \
-DDOWNLOAD_BOOST=1 -DWITH_BOOST=/usr/src/mysql-5.7.26/include/boost_1_59_0/patches/boost
编译过程略.....
[root@local mysql-5.7.26]# make && make install

创建mysql用户和组

[root@local mysql-5.7.26]# groupadd mysql
[root@local mysql-5.7.26]# useradd -M -s /sbin/nologin -g mysql mysql

####、 设置环境变量

[root@local mysql]# cd /usr/local/mysql/
[root@local mysql]# echo 'export PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH' >/etc/profile.d/mysql.sh
[root@local mysql]# . /etc/profile.d/mysql.sh

初始化数据库

[root@local mysql]# mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data --user=mysql
2019-08-17 17:29:43 [WARNING] mysql_install_db is deprecated. Please consider switching to mysqld --initialize
2019-08-17 17:29:45 [WARNING] The bootstrap log isn't empty:
2019-08-17 17:29:45 [WARNING] 2019-08-17T09:29:43.936116Z 0 [Warning] --bootstrap is deprecated. Please consider using --initialize instead
2019-08-17T09:29:43.936687Z 0 [Warning] Changed limits: max_open_files: 1024 (requested 5000)
2019-08-17T09:29:43.936692Z 0 [Warning] Changed limits: table_open_cache: 431 (requested 2000)

修改配置文件

[root@local mysql]# sed -i '11,13d' /etc/my.cnf
[root@local mysql]# sed -ri 's#^(datadir=).*#\1/usr/local/mysql/data#g' /etc/my.cnf
[root@local mysql]# sed -ri 's#^(socket=).*#\1/tmp/mysql.sock#g' /etc/my.cnf

设置服务启动脚本

[root@local mysql]# cp /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
[root@local mysql]sed -ri 's#^(basedir=).*#\1/usr/local/mysql#g' /etc/init.d/mysqld
[root@local mysql]# sed -ri 's#^(datadir=).*#\1/usr/local/mysql/data#g' /etc/init.d/mysqld

启动服务

[root@local mysql]# service mysqld start
Starting MySQL.Logging to '/usr/local/mysql/data/96.err'.
 SUCCESS! 
[root@local mysql]# chkconfig mysqld on
[root@local mysql]# ss -antl
State      Recv-Q Send-Q      Local Address:Port                     Peer Address:Port              
LISTEN     0      128                     *:111                                 *:*                  
LISTEN     0      128                     *:22                                  *:*                  
LISTEN     0      80                     :::3306                               :::*                  
LISTEN     0      128                    :::111                                :::*                  
LISTEN     0      128                    :::22

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