Docker实战之Mysql集群搭建

发布于 2022-6-24 17:14
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作者 |上海滩虎哥
来源 | 今日头条

Mysql集群常见的集群方式有两种,第一种是主备模式(一主多备或多主多备);另外一种是Cluster模式,这里介绍Percona XtraDB Cluster(简称PXC-Mysql)搭建方式。

PXC-Mysql介绍

Pxc-mysql是针对mysql开源的高可用解决方案,集群由多个节点组成,其中每个节点都包含相同的数据集。建议的配置是至少有3个节点,但也可以有2个节点。每个节点都是一个MySQL服务器实例。

Docker实战之Mysql集群搭建-开源基础软件社区

Pxc-Mysql集群搭建

准备三台服务器,这里采用docker方式安装,mysql版本是8.022,大家可根据使用自行选择版本

1、创建目录

$ mkdir -m 777 -p /pxc-mysql/data
$ mkdir -m 777 -p /pxc-mysql/cert
$ mkdir -m 777 -p /pxc-mysql/config

2、在config目录中创建cert.cnf

$ touch cert.cnf
$ vi cert.cnf

把以下内容复制到cert.cnf中

[mysqld]
lower_case_table_names=1
sql_mode=STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_ZERO_IN_DATE,NO_ZERO_DATE,ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION
ssl-ca = /cert/ca.pem
ssl-cert = /cert/server-cert.pem
ssl-key = /cert/server-key.pem
[client]
ssl-ca = /cert/ca.pem
ssl-cert = /cert/client-cert.pem
ssl-key = /cert/client-key.pem
[sst]
encrypt = 4
ssl-ca = /cert/ca.pem
ssl-cert = /cert/server-cert.pem
ssl-key = /cert/server-key.pem

3、在主节点创建ssl证书,介绍两种方式

a. 自动创建ssl证书

$ docker run --name pxc-cert --rm -v /pxc-mysql/cert:/cert percona/percona-xtradb-cluster:8.0.22 mysql_ssl_rsa_setup -d /cert

b. 手动生成秘钥和证书

(1) 创建ca证书,首先要确保系统已安装openssl

#创建CA证书
$ cd /cert 
$ openssl genrsa 2048 > ca-key.pem
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus (2 primes)
....................................+++++
..+++++
e is 65537 (0x010001)

$ openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -days 3600 \
 -key ca-key.pem -out ca.pem
Can't load /root/.rnd into RNG
140331426972096:error:2406F079:random number generator:RAND_load_file:Cannot open file:../crypto/rand/randfile.c:88:Filename=/root/.rnd
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:CN
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:SH
Locality Name (eg, city) []:
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:whu
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:
Email Address []:

创建CA的时候需要填一些信息,可根据情况自行填写

(2) 创建服务器证书

#创建服务器证书
# server-cert.pem = 公钥, server-key.pem = 私钥
$ openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -days 3600 \
 -nodes -keyout server-key.pem -out server-req.pem
 
Ignoring -days; not generating a certificate
Can't load /root/.rnd into RNG
140086461567424:error:2406F079:random number generator:RAND_load_file:Cannot open file:../crypto/rand/randfile.c:88:Filename=/root/.rnd
Generating a RSA private key
............................................................................................................................+++++
......................+++++
writing new private key to 'server-key.pem'
-----
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:CN
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:SH
Locality Name (eg, city) []:
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:whu #作者随意写的
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:
Email Address []:
Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:

 $ openssl rsa -in client-key.pem -out client-key.pem
$ openssl x509 -req -in client-req.pem -days 3600 \
 -CA ca.pem -CAkey ca-key.pem -set_serial 01 -out client-cert.pem

注意:创建server证书的时候,需要填一些信息,可根据情况自行填写,填写的信息必须与创建CA时填写的一致

(3) 证书验证

$ openssl verify -CAfile ca.pem server-cert.pem client-cert.pem
#如果显示以下内容表示一切么问题
server-cert.pem: OK
client-cert.pem: OK

4、创建overlay类型网络,可选

好处是mysql服务都在一个专属的网络ip段。当然也可不创建,通过服务器ip进行访问

$ docker network create -d overlay --attachable --subnet=173.30.0.0/16 microservice-net

5、把上面创建的证书复制到其它节点机器相同位置

6、在各节点服务器分别创建percona-xtradb-cluster,mysql密码自行替换

node1:

docker run -d \
-p 3306:3306 \
-e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=<自行填写密码> \
-e CLUSTER_NAME=PXC \
-e XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD=<自行填写密码> \
-e "TZ=Asia/Shanghai" \
-v /pxc-mysql/data:/var/lib/mysql \
-v /pxc-mysql/cert:/cert \
-v /pxc-mysql/config:/etc/percona-xtradb-cluster.conf.d \
--privileged \
--name=node1 \
--net=microservice-net --ip 173.30.1.11 \
percona/percona-xtradb-cluster:8.0.22

node2:

docker run -d \
-p 3306:3306 \
-e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=<自行填写密码> \
-e CLUSTER_NAME=PXC \
-e XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD=<自行填写密码> \
-e "TZ=Asia/Shanghai" \
-e CLUSTER_JOIN=node1 \
-v /pxc-mysql/data:/var/lib/mysql \
-v /pxc-mysql/cert:/cert \
-v /pxc-mysql/config:/etc/percona-xtradb-cluster.conf.d \
--privileged \
--name=node2 \
--net=microservice-net --ip 173.30.1.12 \
percona/percona-xtradb-cluster:8.0.22

node3

docker run -d \
-p 3306:3306 \
-e MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=<自行填写密码> \
-e CLUSTER_NAME=PXC \
-e XTRABACKUP_PASSWORD=<自行填写密码> \
-e "TZ=Asia/Shanghai" \
-e CLUSTER_JOIN=node1 \
-v /pxc-mysql/data:/var/lib/mysql \
-v /pxc-mysql/cert:/cert \
-v /pxc-mysql/config:/etc/percona-xtradb-cluster.conf.d \
--privileged \
--name=node3 \
--net=microservice-net --ip 173.30.1.13 \
percona/percona-xtradb-cluster:8.0.22

7、验证

$ docker exec -it node1 /usr/bin/mysql -uroot -p<密码>

注意:其中一个节点断开,无法重启,修改grastate.dat中的safe_to_bootstrap: 0改为1。

$ cd /pxc-mysql/data
$ vi grastate.dat
safe_to_bootstrap: 1

注意:node2和node3节点需等node1创建成功后再创建,否则会导致无法加入集群。另外,集群需要同步服务器时钟,如果购买的是云服务器,则不需要同步,供应商已为我们做了同步。

至此,mysql三节点集群已创建,可连接任何一台mysql写入数据,其它节点数据库均能实时同步数据。

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已于2022-6-24 17:14:43修改
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