#夏日挑战赛# HarmonyOS - HDC命令与ADB命令使用对比 原创 精华

发布于 2022-6-20 14:09
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作者:路锁

本文正在参加星光计划3.0–夏日挑战赛

前言

作为多年Android习惯使用ADB命令,对于HarmonyOS HDC命令如何使用?两者之间区别及原子化服务开发过程中HDC命令与ADB命令使用技巧,请移步下文讲解。

一、HDC与ADB介绍

HDC介绍

HDC,即HarmonyOS Device Connector,是HarmonyOS为开发人员提供的用于调试的命令行工具,通过该工具可以在windows/linux/mac系统上与真实设备或者模拟器进行交互。

HDC通过HarmonyOS SDK获取,存放于sdk的toolchains目录下,使用时将sdk的toolchains目录添加到环境变量。

  • 通过hdc -help查看hdc命令总表
C:\Users\lsyt>hdc -help
Usage: hdc [options] <command> [arguments]
Options:
 -t UTID   Specify the target device with UTID(unique target id)
 -s SOCKSPEC  Specify the socket to bind for server
 -h         Display this usage info
 -v         Display the version info

Commands:
 list targets [-v]    List the connected targets, use -v option to get
                          more details
 help                 Display this usage info
 version              Display the version info
 tmode <usb|port PORT>        Set the daemon working mode to usb or tcp port
 tconn HOST[:PORT] [-remove]  Connect to the target which is working under tcp port mode.
                              Remove the connection if the -remove option is specified.
 fport list [-b]      List the relayed connections, use -b option for backward mode.
 fport LOCAL REMOTE [-b]  Relay socket LOCAL to REMOTE
     socket can be specified as the list below:
       tcp:PORT       use tcp port
       jdwp:<process pid> (for REMOTE only)
 fport rm [LOCAL] [-b]    Remove the given LOCAL socket connection,
                      remove all if no LOCAL argument
 file send LOCAL... REMOTE
      Copy LOCAL files to target under REMOTE directory
 file recv REMOTE... LOCAL
      Copy REMOTE files to LOCAL directory
 file sync [all|data|...|system|vendor]
      Sync files from local location to the target.
 shell [-nTtx] [COMMAND...]
     Start a shell and run COMMAND under the target
     -n: do not read from stdin
     -T: disable pseudo-terminal utiity(PTY) allocation
     -t: force PTY allocation
     -x: disable remote exit codes and stdout/stderr separation
 app install [-rdg] PACKAGE
     Install the given application PACKAGE to the target
     -r: Replace existing application
     -d: Allow version downgrade (debug compatible only)
     -g: Grant all the permissions
 app install-multiple [-rdg] PACKAGE1 [...PACKAGEn]
 app install-multiple --hap HAP-PATH (for HAPs only)
     Install multiple HAPs(/APKs) of one PACKAGE to the target.
     the following options are for APKs only:
     -r: Replace existing application
     -d: Allow version downgrade (debug compatible only)
     -g: Grant all the permissions
     the option --hap is for HAPs only:
     --hap: Indicate the .hap files to be installed are located under HAP-PATH dir.
 app uninstall [-k] PACKAGE
     Uninstall the PACKAGE app from the target
     -k: Do not remove user data
 listpid              Display debuggable application processes list
 hilog                Tail the logs from the target
 target mount
      Mount the partitions in read-write mode
 target boot
      Boot the target; to see the targets list, try list targets command
 smode [off]          Grant the daemon root permissions, to revoke with the off argument
 kill                 Kill the buddy process
 reset                Reset the connections to target

ADB介绍

ADB,即 Android Debug Bridge,是一种功能多样的命令行工具,可让您与设备进行通信。adb 命令可用于执行各种设备操作(例如安装和调试应用),并提供对 Unix shell(可用来在设备上运行各种命令)的访问权限。它是一种客户端-服务器程序,包括以下三个组件:

  • 客户端:用于发送命令。客户端在开发机器上运行。您可以通过发出 adb 命令从命令行终端调用客户端。
  • 守护程序 (adbd):用于在设备上运行命令。守护程序在每个设备上作为后台进程运行。
  • 服务器:用于管理客户端与守护程序之间的通信。服务器在开发机器上作为后台进程运行。

adb 包含在 Android SDK 平台工具软件包中。您可以使用 SDK 管理器下载此软件包,该管理器会将其安装在 android_sdk/platform-tools/ 下。或者,如果您需要独立的 Android SDK 平台工具软件包,也可以点击此处进行下载

  • 通过adb -help查看hdc命令总表
C:\Users\lsyt>adb --help
Android Debug Bridge version 1.0.41
Version 31.0.3-7562133
Installed as C:\DATA\AndroidSdk\platform-tools_r31.0.3-windows\platform-tools\adb.exe

global options:
 -a         listen on all network interfaces, not just localhost
 -d         use USB device (error if multiple devices connected)
 -e         use TCP/IP device (error if multiple TCP/IP devices available)
 -s SERIAL  use device with given serial (overrides $ANDROID_SERIAL)
 -t ID      use device with given transport id
 -H         name of adb server host [default=localhost]
 -P         port of adb server [default=5037]
 -L SOCKET  listen on given socket for adb server [default=tcp:localhost:5037]

general commands:
 devices [-l]             list connected devices (-l for long output)
 help                     show this help message
 version                  show version num

networking:
 connect HOST[:PORT]      connect to a device via TCP/IP [default port=5555]
 disconnect [HOST[:PORT]]
     disconnect from given TCP/IP device [default port=5555], or all
 pair HOST[:PORT] [PAIRING CODE]
     pair with a device for secure TCP/IP communication
 forward --list           list all forward socket connections
 forward [--no-rebind] LOCAL REMOTE
     forward socket connection using:
       tcp:<port> (<local> may be "tcp:0" to pick any open port)
       localabstract:<unix domain socket name>
       localreserved:<unix domain socket name>
       localfilesystem:<unix domain socket name>
       dev:<character device name>
       jdwp:<process pid> (remote only)
       vsock:<CID>:<port> (remote only)
       acceptfd:<fd> (listen only)
 forward --remove LOCAL   remove specific forward socket connection
 forward --remove-all     remove all forward socket connections
 ppp TTY [PARAMETER...]   run PPP over USB
 reverse --list           list all reverse socket connections from device
 reverse [--no-rebind] REMOTE LOCAL
     reverse socket connection using:
       tcp:<port> (<remote> may be "tcp:0" to pick any open port)
       localabstract:<unix domain socket name>
       localreserved:<unix domain socket name>
       localfilesystem:<unix domain socket name>
 reverse --remove REMOTE  remove specific reverse socket connection
 reverse --remove-all     remove all reverse socket connections from device
 mdns check               check if mdns discovery is available
 mdns services            list all discovered services

file transfer:
 push [--sync] [-z ALGORITHM] [-Z] LOCAL... REMOTE
     copy local files/directories to device
     --sync: only push files that are newer on the host than the device
     -n: dry run: push files to device without storing to the filesystem
     -z: enable compression with a specified algorithm (any, none, brotli)
     -Z: disable compression
 pull [-a] [-z ALGORITHM] [-Z] REMOTE... LOCAL
     copy files/dirs from device
     -a: preserve file timestamp and mode
     -z: enable compression with a specified algorithm (any, none, brotli)
     -Z: disable compression
 sync [-l] [-z ALGORITHM] [-Z] [all|data|odm|oem|product|system|system_ext|vendor]
     sync a local build from $ANDROID_PRODUCT_OUT to the device (default all)
     -n: dry run: push files to device without storing to the filesystem
     -l: list files that would be copied, but don't copy them
     -z: enable compression with a specified algorithm (any, none, brotli)
     -Z: disable compression

shell:
 shell [-e ESCAPE] [-n] [-Tt] [-x] [COMMAND...]
     run remote shell command (interactive shell if no command given)
     -e: choose escape character, or "none"; default '~'
     -n: don't read from stdin
     -T: disable pty allocation
     -t: allocate a pty if on a tty (-tt: force pty allocation)
     -x: disable remote exit codes and stdout/stderr separation
 emu COMMAND              run emulator console command

app installation (see also `adb shell cmd package help`):
 install [-lrtsdg] [--instant] PACKAGE
     push a single package to the device and install it
 install-multiple [-lrtsdpg] [--instant] PACKAGE...
     push multiple APKs to the device for a single package and install them
 install-multi-package [-lrtsdpg] [--instant] PACKAGE...
     push one or more packages to the device and install them atomically
     -r: replace existing application
     -t: allow test packages
     -d: allow version code downgrade (debuggable packages only)
     -p: partial application install (install-multiple only)
     -g: grant all runtime permissions
     --abi ABI: override platform's default ABI
     --instant: cause the app to be installed as an ephemeral install app
     --no-streaming: always push APK to device and invoke Package Manager as separate steps
     --streaming: force streaming APK directly into Package Manager
     --fastdeploy: use fast deploy
     --no-fastdeploy: prevent use of fast deploy
     --force-agent: force update of deployment agent when using fast deploy
     --date-check-agent: update deployment agent when local version is newer and using fast deploy
     --version-check-agent: update deployment agent when local version has different version code and using fast deploy
     (See also `adb shell pm help` for more options.)
 uninstall [-k] PACKAGE
     remove this app package from the device
     '-k': keep the data and cache directories

debugging:
 bugreport [PATH]
     write bugreport to given PATH [default=bugreport.zip];
     if PATH is a directory, the bug report is saved in that directory.
     devices that don't support zipped bug reports output to stdout.
 jdwp                     list pids of processes hosting a JDWP transport
 logcat                   show device log (logcat --help for more)

security:
 disable-verity           disable dm-verity checking on userdebug builds
 enable-verity            re-enable dm-verity checking on userdebug builds
 keygen FILE
     generate adb public/private key; private key stored in FILE,

scripting:
 wait-for[-TRANSPORT]-STATE...
     wait for device to be in a given state
     STATE: device, recovery, rescue, sideload, bootloader, or disconnect
     TRANSPORT: usb, local, or any [default=any]
 get-state                print offline | bootloader | device
 get-serialno             print <serial-number>
 get-devpath              print <device-path>
 remount [-R]
      remount partitions read-write. if a reboot is required, -R will
      will automatically reboot the device.
 reboot [bootloader|recovery|sideload|sideload-auto-reboot]
     reboot the device; defaults to booting system image but
     supports bootloader and recovery too. sideload reboots
     into recovery and automatically starts sideload mode,
     sideload-auto-reboot is the same but reboots after sideloading.
 sideload OTAPACKAGE      sideload the given full OTA package
 root                     restart adbd with root permissions
 unroot                   restart adbd without root permissions
 usb                      restart adbd listening on USB
 tcpip PORT               restart adbd listening on TCP on PORT

internal debugging:
 start-server             ensure that there is a server running
 kill-server              kill the server if it is running
 reconnect                kick connection from host side to force reconnect
 reconnect device         kick connection from device side to force reconnect
 reconnect offline        reset offline/unauthorized devices to force reconnect

usb:
 attach                   attach a detached USB device
 detach                   detach from a USB device to allow use by other processes
environment variables:
 $ADB_TRACE
     comma-separated list of debug info to log:
     all,adb,sockets,packets,rwx,usb,sync,sysdeps,transport,jdwp
 $ADB_VENDOR_KEYS         colon-separated list of keys (files or directories)
 $ANDROID_SERIAL          serial number to connect to (see -s)
 $ANDROID_LOG_TAGS        tags to be used by logcat (see logcat --help)
 $ADB_LOCAL_TRANSPORT_MAX_PORT max emulator scan port (default 5585, 16 emus)
 $ADB_MDNS_AUTO_CONNECT   comma-separated list of mdns services to allow auto-connect (default adb-tls-connect)

二、HDC与ADB常用命令对比

HDC ADB 说明
hdc -h adb --help 查看帮助
hdc -v adb --version 查看版本
hdc list targets adb devices 查看连接设备
hdc kill adb kill-server 结束服务
hdc kill -r adb start-server 启动服务
hdc app install [安装包路径] adb install [安装包路径] 安装应用
hdc app uninstall package adb uninstall package 卸载应用
hdc hilog adb logcat 抓取log
hdc shell hilogcat >log.log adb shell logcat >log.log 抓取log并保存
hdc shell reboot adb reboot 重启设备
hdc shell bm get -u adb shell bm get -u 获取UUID
hdc file recv REMOTE… LOCAL adb pull REMOTE… LOCAL 接收文件<br />REMOTE:手机<br />LOCAL:PC
hdc file send LOCAL… REMOTE adb push LOCAL… REMOTE 发送文件
hdc shell screencap filename adb shell screencap filename 截屏
hdc shell screenrecord filename adb shell screenrecord filename 录屏

三、日常开发常用命令

日常FA开发中以上命令的使用对于前端同学来说比较陌生,命令不容易记住。如:获取UUID,命令记不住需要往期的赋能资料,最终才能获取到UUID。针对命令记不住的问题可通过提供简单脚本的方式,提供给前端使用。

注意:HDC服务和ADB服务不能共存。在执行脚本时,如果获取的数据为空,则需要确认手机设备使用的是hdc命令还是ADB服务。
确认方式:通过hdc list targets命令获取设备列表,如果获取到设备列表则当前使用的为hdc服务,否则为adb服务。可通过adb kill-server结束adb服务,再通过usb连接设备,使用hdc list targets命令获取设备列表,如果获取到列表则表示当前服务使用的是hdc服务。如下图操作:

#夏日挑战赛# HarmonyOS - HDC命令与ADB命令使用对比-开源基础软件社区

3.1 获取UUID

脚本:uid.bat 已放置于下方资源处,如有需要自行下载

hdc shell bm get -u > uuid.log

将该指令生成uuid.bat脚本,通过脚本获取设备UUID。
#夏日挑战赛# HarmonyOS - HDC命令与ADB命令使用对比-开源基础软件社区

3.2 获取hilog日志

脚本:hilog.bat 已放置于下方资源处,如有需要自行下载

hdc hilog

#夏日挑战赛# HarmonyOS - HDC命令与ADB命令使用对比-开源基础软件社区

3.3 抓取log并保存

脚本:hilogs.bat 已放置于下方资源处,如有需要自行下载

hdc shell hilogcat >log.log

总结

  • HDC命令及ADB命令都可以通过脚本方式获取或查看对应数据;
  • 前端同学可按需自己编写脚本获取自己所需数据。

更多原创内容请关注:中软国际 HarmonyOS 技术团队

入门到精通、技巧到案例,系统化分享HarmonyOS开发技术,欢迎投稿和订阅,让我们一起携手前行共建鸿蒙生态。

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已于2022-6-20 14:18:08修改
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