爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解 part 1

发布于 2021-3-1 16:49
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BeautifulSoup


Beautiful Soup提供一些简单的、python式的函数用来处理导航、搜索、修改分析树等功能。它是一个工具箱,通过解析文档为用户提供需要抓取的数据,因为简单,所以不需要多少代码就可以写出一个完整的应用程序。
Beautiful Soup自动将输入文档转换为Unicode编码,输出文档转换为utf-8编码。你不需要考虑编码方式,除非文档没有指定一个编码方式,这时,Beautiful Soup就不能自动识别编码方式了。然后,你仅仅需要说明一下原始编码方式就可以了。
Beautiful Soup已成为和lxml、html6lib一样出色的python解释器,为用户灵活地提供不同的解析策略或强劲的速度。

 

用法详解:

爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解  part 1-开源基础软件社区

 

基本使用:

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')#使用lxml解析库
print(soup.prettify())#格式化代码,自动补全代码。前面给的html不完整,有的只有头标签
print(soup.title.string)#打印内容

 

prettify美化。前面给的html不全,有的不完整,只有头标签,soup.prettify()补全代码。soup.title.string 打印内容爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解  part 1-开源基础软件社区

 

标签选择器


选择元素:

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')#选择解析器
print(soup.title)#选择title标签。标签即<>
print(type(soup.title))
print(soup.head)#选择head标签
print(soup.p)#选择p标签

 

代码里p标签比较特殊,有多个,结果只输出了第一个p标签。意味着这种选择方式只会返回一个(第一个)爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解  part 1-开源基础软件社区
 
获取标签名称:

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.title.name)#获取title标签名

 

结果把标签名字输出来啦爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解  part 1-开源基础软件社区

获取标签属性:

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.attrs['name'])#获取p标签name属性值
print(soup.p['name'])#获取p标签name属性值

 

获取p标签name属性值爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解  part 1-开源基础软件社区

 

获取标签里的内容:

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p clss="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.string)#获取p标签内容,该方法只能获取第一个p标签内容

获取p标签内容,该方法只能获取第一个p标签内容爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解  part 1-开源基础软件社区

 

标签嵌套选择:

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.head.title.string)#嵌套选择,用点号分割,层层嵌套

爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解  part 1-开源基础软件社区

 

子节点和子孙节点:

html = """
<html>
    <head>
        <title>The Dormouse's story</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <p class="story">
            Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
            <a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
                <span>Elsie</span>
            </a>
            <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> 
            and
            <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
            and they lived at the bottom of a well.
        </p>
        <p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.contents)#获取p标签的子节点及其内容

 

print(soup.p.contents)contents#获取标签的子孙节点及其内容。结果是列表形式爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解  part 1-开源基础软件社区

html = """
<html>
    <head>
        <title>The Dormouse's story</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <p class="story">
            Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
            <a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
                <span>Elsie</span>
            </a>
            <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> 
            and
            <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
            and they lived at the bottom of a well.
        </p>
        <p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.children)
for i, child in enumerate(soup.p.children):
    print(i, child)

 

print(soup.p.children) children获取标签的子节点。返回结果是一个迭代器爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解  part 1-开源基础软件社区

html = """
<html>
    <head>
        <title>The Dormouse's story</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <p class="story">
            Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
            <a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
                <span>Elsie</span>
            </a>
            <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> 
            and
            <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
            and they lived at the bottom of a well.
        </p>
        <p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.descendants)#返回子孙节点(不仅仅是子节点,返回结果为迭代器)
for i, child in enumerate(soup.p.descendants):
    print(i, child)

 

descendants#返回子孙节点(不仅仅是子节点,返回结果为迭代器)爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解  part 1-开源基础软件社区

 

父节点和祖先节点:

html = """
<html>
    <head>
        <title>The Dormouse's story</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <p class="story">
            Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
            <a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
                <span>Elsie</span>
            </a>
            <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> 
            and
            <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
            and they lived at the bottom of a well.
        </p>
        <p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.a.parent)

 

soup.a.parent 返回的是第一个a标签的父节点爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解  part 1-开源基础软件社区

html = """
<html>
    <head>
        <title>The Dormouse's story</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <p class="story">
            Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
            <a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
                <span>Elsie</span>
            </a>
            <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> 
            and
            <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
            and they lived at the bottom of a well.
        </p>
        <p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(list(enumerate(soup.a.parents)))

 

soup.a.parents 返回的是父节点以及祖先节点爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解  part 1-开源基础软件社区

 

兄弟节点:

html = """
<html>
    <head>
        <title>The Dormouse's story</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <p class="story">
            Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
            <a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
                <span>Elsie</span>
            </a>
            <a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> 
            and
            <a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
            and they lived at the bottom of a well.
        </p>
        <p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(list(enumerate(soup.a.next_siblings)))#a标签的下一个兄弟节点
print(list(enumerate(soup.a.previous_siblings)))#上一个兄弟

 

sibling 翻译兄弟姐妹:

爬虫笔记:BeautifulSoup详解  part 1-开源基础软件社区

 

 

已于2021-3-1 16:49:47修改
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