MySQL全面瓦解17:触发器相关

发布于 2022-7-27 15:21
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关于触发器
现实开发中我们经常会遇到这种情况,比如添加、删除和修改信息的时候需要记录日志,我们就要在完成常规的数据库逻辑操作之后再去写入日志表,这样变成了两步操作,更复杂了。

又比如删除一个人员信息的时候,需要将他的购物记录、收货地址、收藏夹等都删了,这个连续的操作容易出错,一致性和完整性不好保证。这时候就要使用触发器,既可以免去一堆的业务逻辑代码,又能更好的保证数据完整性。

触发器(trigger)是一种与表有关的数据库对象:在满足定义条件时触发某种操作,并执行触发器中定义的语句集合。触发器的这种特性可以协助应用在数据库端保证数据的完整性。

它是一种与表事件相关的特殊的存储过程,当对一个表进行操作( insert,delete, update)时就会激活执行。

触发器的使用
创建触发器
创建触发器的语法如下:

 

CREATE TRIGGER trigger_name trigger_time trigger_event ON t_name FOR EACH ROW trigger_stmt


说明:

trigger_name:触发器名称

tirgger_time:触发执行时间点,数据操作前(BEFORE) 或者 数据操作后(AFTER)

trigger_event:触发事件,增(INSERT)、删(DELETE)、改(UPDATE)

t_name:指的是在 t_name 这张表上建立触发器

trigger_stmt:触发器的程序体,可以是一条SQL语句或者是用BEGIN和END包含的多条语句

触发器只能创建在永久表(Permanent)上,不能创建在临时表(Temporary)上

FOR EACH ROW 固定表达式,表示任何一条记录上的操作满足触发事件都会触发该触发器

tirgger_time有两种类型,trigger_event有三种类型,所以他们一共有6种组合:BEFORE INSERT,BEFORE DELETE,BEFORE UPDATE,AFTER INSERT,AFTER DELETE,AFTER UPDATE

示例(先创建一个日志表,用于触发器触发时候填入值):

 /*先创建一个日志表,用于触发器触发时候填入值*/
 mysql> DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `TriggerLog`;
 Query OK, 0 rows affected
 
 mysql> CREATE TABLE `TriggerLog`
  (
     `id` INT auto_increment PRIMARY KEY,
   `trigger_time` VARCHAR(30),
    `trigger_event` VARCHAR(30), 
   `memo` VARCHAR(200)   
 );
 Query OK, 0 rows affected


Insert类型触发器:

 mysql> 
 /*这边声明SQL脚本的结束符为// */
 DELIMITER //
 DROP TRIGGER IF EXISTS trig_after_insert;
 CREATE TRIGGER trig_after_insert AFTER INSERT ON students FOR EACH ROW
 BEGIN
   insert into `TriggerLog`(`trigger_time`,`trigger_event`,`memo`) values ('after','insert',concat('new student info,id:',cast(new.studentid as char)));
 END //
 Query OK, 0 rows affected
 
 mysql> 
 /*重置SQL脚本的结束符为; */
 DELIMITER ;
 Query OK, 0 rows affected
 
 mysql> 
 /*插入一条数据 */
 insert into students(studentname,score,classid) values('trigger1',100,0);
 Query OK, 1 row affected
 

 mysql> 
 /*查询日志表看是否有触发写入 */
 select * from `TriggerLog`;
 +----+--------------+---------------+------------------------+
 | id | trigger_time | trigger_event | memo                   |
 +----+--------------+---------------+------------------------+
 |  1 | after        | insert        | new student info,id:21 |
 +----+--------------+---------------+------------------------+
 1 row in set


 Update类型触发器:

mysql> 
 /*这边声明SQL脚本的结束符为// */
DELIMITER //
 DROP TRIGGER IF EXISTS trig_after_update;
 CREATE TRIGGER trig_after_update AFTER UPDATE ON students FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
   insert into `TriggerLog`(`trigger_time`,`trigger_event`,`memo`) values ('after','update',concat('update student info,id:',cast(new.studentid as char)));
 END //
 Query OK, 0 rows affected
 
 mysql> 
 /*重置SQL脚本的结束符为; */
 DELIMITER ;
 Query OK, 0 rows affected
 
 mysql> 
/*更新数据 */
 update students set score=99 where studentname='trigger1';
 Query OK, 1 row affected
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0
 
 mysql> 
 /*查询日志表看是否更新的时候有触发写入 */
 select * from `TriggerLog`;
 +----+--------------+---------------+---------------------------+
 | id | trigger_time | trigger_event | memo                      |
 +----+--------------+---------------+---------------------------+
 |  1 | after        | insert        | new student info,id:21    |
 |  2 | after        | update        | update student info,id:21 |
+----+--------------+---------------+---------------------------+
 2 rows in set 


 Delete类型触发器: 

mysql> 
 /*这边声明SQL脚本的结束符为// */
DELIMITER //
 DROP TRIGGER IF EXISTS trig_after_delete;
 CREATE TRIGGER trig_after_delete AFTER DELETE ON students FOR EACH ROW
 BEGIN
   insert into `TriggerLog`(`trigger_time`,`trigger_event`,`memo`) values ('after','update',concat('delete student info,id:',cast(old.studentid as char)));
 END //
 Query OK, 0 rows affected

 mysql> 
 /*重置SQL脚本的结束符为; */
 DELIMITER ;
 Query OK, 0 rows affected
 
 mysql> 
 /* 删除数据 */
 delete from students where studentid=21;
Query OK, 1 row affected
 
 mysql> 
/*查询日志看删除是否有触发写入*/
 select * from `TriggerLog`;
 +----+--------------+---------------+---------------------------+
 | id | trigger_time | trigger_event | memo                      |
 +----+--------------+---------------+---------------------------+
 |  1 | after        | insert        | new student info,id:21    |
 |  2 | after        | update        | update student info,id:21 |
 |  3 | after        | update        | delete student info,id:21 |
 +----+--------------+---------------+---------------------------+
 3 rows in set


查看触发器
查看全部触发器
 

show triggers; --语法 

 

 mysql> show triggers;
 +-------------------+--------+----------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+---------+--------------------------------------------+----------------+----------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
 | Trigger           | Event  | Table    | Statement                                                                                                                                                          | Timing | Created | sql_mode                                   | Definer        | character_set_client | collation_connection | Database Collation |
 +-------------------+--------+----------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+---------+--------------------------------------------+----------------+----------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
 | trig_after_insert | INSERT | students | BEGIN
   insert into `TriggerLog`(`trigger_time`,`trigger_event`,`memo`) values ('after','insert',concat('new student info,id:',cast(new.studentid as char)));
 END    | AFTER  | NULL    | STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION | root@localhost | utf8                 | utf8_general_ci      | latin1_swedish_ci  |
 | trig_after_update | UPDATE | students | BEGIN
   insert into `TriggerLog`(`trigger_time`,`trigger_event`,`memo`) values ('after','update',concat('update student info,id:',cast(new.studentid as char)));
 END | AFTER  | NULL    | STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION | root@localhost | utf8                 | utf8_general_ci      | latin1_swedish_ci  |
 | trig_after_delete | DELETE | students | BEGIN
   insert into `TriggerLog`(`trigger_time`,`trigger_event`,`memo`) values ('after','update',concat('delete student info,id:',cast(old.studentid as char)));
 END | AFTER  | NULL    | STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION | root@localhost | utf8                 | utf8_general_ci      | latin1_swedish_ci  |
 +-------------------+--------+----------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+---------+--------------------------------------------+----------------+----------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
 3 rows in set

 

查看触发器的创建语句
 

show create trigger trigger_name;   --语法
 mysql> show create trigger trig_after_insert;


 +-------------------+--------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
 | Trigger           | sql_mode                                   | SQL Original Statement                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           | character_set_client | collation_connection | Database Collation |
 +-------------------+--------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
 | trig_after_insert | STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION | CREATE DEFINER=`root`@`localhost` TRIGGER trig_after_insert AFTER INSERT ON students FOR EACH ROW
  BEGIN
    insert into `TriggerLog`(`trigger_time`,`trigger_event`,`memo`) values ('after','insert',concat('new student info,id:',cast(new.studentid as char)));
 END | utf8                 | utf8_general_ci      | latin1_swedish_ci  |
  +-------------------+--------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+--------------------+
 1 row in set

 


删除触发器

 drop trigger trigger_name;   --语法 
 mysql> drop trigger trig_after_insert;
 Query OK, 0 rows affected
 
 mysql> show create trigger trig_after_insert;
51360 - Trigger does not exist 


使用时的注意点
NEW / OLD的使用区别
触发器针对的是数据库中的每一行记录,每行数据在操作前后都会有一个对应的状态,触发器将没有操作之前的状态保存到 old 关键字中,将操作后的状态保存到 new 中

 new.cname --新增行(或修改前的行)的某列数据
 old.cname --删除行(或修改后的行)的某列数据


 

需要注意的是,old 和 new 不是所有触发器都有

MySQL全面瓦解17:触发器相关-开源基础软件社区
其实我们上面已经用过 new/old 来创建触发器并获取数据,我们根据这个表格重新来修改下那个更新触发器(trig_after_update),输出修改前和修改后的内容比较:

 mysql> 
  /*这边声明SQL脚本的结束符为// */
  DELIMITER //
  DROP TRIGGER IF EXISTS trig_after_update;
  CREATE TRIGGER trig_after_update AFTER UPDATE ON students FOR EACH ROW
  BEGIN
    insert into `TriggerLog`(`trigger_time`,`trigger_event`,`memo`) values ('after','update',concat('from:',old.studentname,',',old.score,' ','to:',new.studentname,',',new.score));
  END //
  Query OK, 0 rows affected
 
 mysql> 
 /*重置SQL脚本的结束符为; */
 DELIMITER ;
 Query OK, 0 rows affected
 
 mysql> 
 /*更新成绩和名称 */
 update students set score=106,studentname='trigger2' where studentid=17;
 Query OK, 1 row affected
 Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0
 
 mysql> 
 /*根据old和new 对比更新前后的值 */
 select * from `TriggerLog`;
 +----+--------------+---------------+--------------------------------------+
| id | trigger_time | trigger_event | memo                                 |
 +----+--------------+---------------+--------------------------------------+
 |  1 | after        | insert        | new student info,id:21               |
 |  2 | after        | update        | update student info,id:21            |
 |  3 | after        | update        | delete student info,id:21            |
 |  4 | after        | update        | from:test2,101.00 to:trigger2,106.00 |
 +----+--------------+---------------+--------------------------------------+
 4 rows in set


无法触发对同表的修改
MySQL 的触发器中不能对本表进行 insert、update 和 delete 操作,否则会报错

 mysql> 
  /*这边声明SQL脚本的结束符为// */
 DELIMITER //
  DROP TRIGGER IF EXISTS trig_after_insert;
  CREATE TRIGGER trig_after_insert AFTER INSERT ON students FOR EACH ROW
  BEGIN
   update students set score = score+1 where studentid= new.studentid;
  END //
  Query OK, 0 rows affected

 mysql> 
 /*重置SQL脚本的结束符为; */
DELIMITER ;
Query OK, 0 rows affected
 
 mysql> 
 /*插入一条数据之后因为触发了对本表的修改,所以报错了 */
 insert into students(studentname,score,classid) values('trigger2',101,0);
 1442 - Can't update table 'students' in stored function/trigger because it is already used by statement which invoked this stored function/trigger.


小结
1、触发器可以通过数据库中的关联表实现级联更改,即一张表数据的改变会影响其他表的数据,如数据修改,数据统计,数据复制等。
2、可以保证数据安全,并进行安全校验,限制用户具有操作数据库的某种权利。
3、可以对复杂逻辑的实现进行数据完整性检查和约束。
4、使用触发器的要应需而用,如果过分依赖触发器,会影响数据库的结构,增加数据库的执行和维护成本。
5、触发器有BEFORE触发器和AFTER触发器的区别,所以它的执行步骤是先执行 BEFORE触发器,再执行业务脚本,最后执行AFTER触发器。需要注意的是 某一个步骤错误后就不再执行了, 如果是事务表,会被回滚,如果是非事务表,那么就无法回滚了,数据可能有不一致性。

 

触发器的两种限制


1、触发程序不能调用将数据返回客户端的存储程序,也不能使用采用CALL语句的动态SQL语句,但是允许存储程序通过参数将数据返回触发程序,也就是存储过程或者函数通过OUT或者INOUT类型的参数将数据返回触发器是可以的,但是不能调用直接返回数据的过程。
2、不能在触发器中使用以显示或隐式方式开始或结束事务的语句,如START TRANS-ACTION,COMMIT或ROLLBACK。

 

 

文章转载自公众号:架构与思维

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已于2022-7-27 15:21:03修改
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