鸿蒙AI能力之语音识别 原创

发布于 2021-12-23 00:43
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文章旨在帮助大家开发录音及语音识别时少踩一点坑。

效果


鸿蒙AI能力之语音识别-开源基础软件社区
左侧为简易UI布局及识别成果,右侧为网易云播放的测试音频

开发步骤

IDE安装、项目创建等在此略过。App采用SDK版本为API 6,使用JS UI

1.权限申请

AI语音识别不需要任何权限,但此处使用到麦克风录制音频,就需要申请麦克风权限。
在config.json配置文件中添加权限:

"reqPermissions": [
      {
        "name": "ohos.permission.MICROPHONE"
      }
    ]

在MainAbility中显示申明麦克风权限

@Override
    public void onStart(Intent intent) {
        super.onStart(intent);
        requestPermission();
    }

    //获取权限
    private void requestPermission() {
        String[] permission = {
                "ohos.permission.MICROPHONE",
        };
        List<String> applyPermissions = new ArrayList<>();
        for (String element : permission) {
            if (verifySelfPermission(element) != 0) {
                if (canRequestPermission(element)) {
                    applyPermissions.add(element);
                }
            }
        }
        requestPermissionsFromUser(applyPermissions.toArray(new String[0]), 0);
    }

2.创建音频录制的工具类

首先创建音频录制的工具类AudioCaptureUtils
而音频录制需要用到AudioCapturer类,而在创建AudioCapture类时又会用到
AudioStreamInfo类及AudioCapturerInfo类,所以我们分别申明以上3个类的变量

	private AudioStreamInfo audioStreamInfo;
    private AudioCapturer audioCapturer;
    private AudioCapturerInfo audioCapturerInfo;

在语音识别时对音频的录制是由限制的,限制如下:
鸿蒙AI能力之语音识别-开源基础软件社区
所以我们在录制音频时需要注意
1.采样率16000HZ
2.声道为单声道
3.仅支持普通话
作为工具类,为了使AudioCaptureUtils能多处使用,我们在创建构造函数时,提供声道与频率的参数重载,并在构造函数中初始化AudioStreamInfo类及AudioCapturerInfo

//channelMask 声道
//SampleRate 频率
  public AudioCaptureUtils(AudioStreamInfo.ChannelMask channelMask, int SampleRate) {
        this.audioStreamInfo = new AudioStreamInfo.Builder()
                .encodingFormat(AudioStreamInfo.EncodingFormat.ENCODING_PCM_16BIT)
                .channelMask(channelMask)
                .sampleRate(SampleRate)
                .build();
        this.audioCapturerInfo = new AudioCapturerInfo.Builder().audioStreamInfo(audioStreamInfo).build();
    }

在init函数中进行audioCapturer的初始化,在初始化时对音效进行设置,默认为降噪模式

//packageName 包名
 public void init(String packageName) {
        this.init(SoundEffect.SOUND_EFFECT_TYPE_NS,packageName );
    }
//soundEffect 音效uuid
//packageName 包名
   public void init(UUID soundEffect, String packageName) {
        if (audioCapturer == null || audioCapturer.getState() == AudioCapturer.State.STATE_UNINITIALIZED)
            audioCapturer = new AudioCapturer(this.audioCapturerInfo);
        audioCapturer.addSoundEffect(soundEffect, packageName);
    }

初始化后提供startstopdestory方法,分别开启音频录制、停止音频录制和销毁,此处都是调用AudioCapturer类中对应函数。

  public void stop(){
        this.audioCapturer.stop();
    }

    public void destory(){
        this.audioCapturer.stop();
        this.audioCapturer.release();
    }

    public Boolean start() {
        if (audioCapturer == null)
            return false;
        return audioCapturer.start();
    }

提供一个读取音频流的方法及获取AudioCapturer实例的方法

//buffers 需要写入的数据流
//offset 数据流的偏移量
//byteslength 数据流的长度
 public int read(byte[] buffers, int offset, int bytesLength){
        return audioCapturer.read(buffers,offset,bytesLength);
    }

//获取AudioCapturer的实例audioCapturer
  public AudioCapturer get(){
        return this.audioCapturer;
    }

3.创建语音识别的工具类

在上面我们已经创建好一个音频录制的工具类,接下来在创建一个语音识别的工具类 AsrUtils
我们再回顾一下语音识别的约束与限制:
鸿蒙AI能力之语音识别-开源基础软件社区
在此补充一个隐藏限制,PCM流的长度只允许640与1280两种长度,也就是我们音频读取流时只能使用6401280两种长度。

接下来我们定义一些基本常量:

	//采样率限定16000HZ
    private static final int VIDEO_SAMPLE_RATE = 16000;
	//VAD结束时间 默认2000ms
    private static final int VAD_END_WAIT_MS = 2000;
	//VAD起始时间 默认4800ms 
	//这两参数与识别准确率有关,相关信息可百度查看,在此使用系统默认
    private static final int VAD_FRONT_WAIT_MS = 4800;
	//输入时常 20000ms
    private static final int TIMEOUT_DURATION = 20000;

	//PCM流长度仅限640或1280
    private static final int BYTES_LENGTH = 1280;
	//线程池相关参数
    private static final int CAPACITY = 6;
    private static final int ALIVE_TIME = 3;
    private static final int POOL_SIZE = 3;

因为要在后台持续录制音频,所以需要开辟一个新的线程。此处用到java的ThreadPoolExecutor类进行线程操作。
定义一个线程池实例以及其它相关属性如下:


    //录音线程
    private ThreadPoolExecutor poolExecutor;	
  /* 自定义状态信息
     **  错误:-1
     **  初始:0
     **  init:1
     **  开始输入:2
     **  结束输入:3
     **  识别结束:5
     **  中途出识别结果:9
     **  最终识别结果:10
     */
    public int state = 0;
    //识别结果
    public String result;
	//是否开启语音识别
	//当开启时才写入PCM流
    boolean isStarted = false;

	//ASR客户端
    private AsrClient asrClient;
	//ASR监听对象
    private AsrListener listener;
    AsrIntent asrIntent;
	//音频录制工具类
    private AudioCaptureUtils audioCaptureUtils;

在构造函数中初始化相关属性

public AsrUtils(Context context) {
		//实例化一个单声道,采集频率16000HZ的音频录制工具类实例
        this.audioCaptureUtils = new AudioCaptureUtils(AudioStreamInfo.ChannelMask.CHANNEL_IN_MONO, VIDEO_SAMPLE_RATE);
		//初始化降噪音效
        this.audioCaptureUtils.init("com.panda_coder.liedetector");
		//结果值设为空
        this.result = "";
        //给录音控件初始化一个新的线程池
        poolExecutor = new ThreadPoolExecutor(
                POOL_SIZE,
                POOL_SIZE,
                ALIVE_TIME,
                TimeUnit.SECONDS,
                new LinkedBlockingQueue<>(CAPACITY),
                new ThreadPoolExecutor.DiscardOldestPolicy());

        if (asrIntent == null) {
            asrIntent = new AsrIntent();
			//设置音频来源为PCM流
			//此处也可设置为文件            
			asrIntent.setAudioSourceType(AsrIntent.AsrAudioSrcType.ASR_SRC_TYPE_PCM);
            asrIntent.setVadEndWaitMs(VAD_END_WAIT_MS);
            asrIntent.setVadFrontWaitMs(VAD_FRONT_WAIT_MS);
            asrIntent.setTimeoutThresholdMs(TIMEOUT_DURATION);
        }

        if (asrClient == null) {
			//实例化AsrClient
            asrClient = AsrClient.createAsrClient(context).orElse(null);
        }
        if (listener == null) {
			//实例化MyAsrListener
            listener = new MyAsrListener();
			//初始化AsrClient
            this.asrClient.init(asrIntent, listener);
        }
	
    }

//够建一个实现AsrListener接口的类MyAsrListener 
 class MyAsrListener implements AsrListener {

        @Override
        public void onInit(PacMap pacMap) {
            HiLog.info(TAG, "====== init");
            state = 1;
        }

        @Override
        public void onBeginningOfSpeech() {
            state = 2;
        }

        @Override
        public void onRmsChanged(float v) {

        }

        @Override
        public void onBufferReceived(byte[] bytes) {

        }

        @Override
        public void onEndOfSpeech() {
            state = 3;
        }

        @Override
        public void onError(int i) {
            state = -1;
            if (i == AsrError.ERROR_SPEECH_TIMEOUT) {
				//当超时时重新监听
                asrClient.startListening(asrIntent);
            } else {
                HiLog.info(TAG, "======error code:" + i);
                asrClient.stopListening();
            }
        }

		//注意与onIntermediateResults获取结果值的区别
		//pacMap.getString(AsrResultKey.RESULTS_RECOGNITION);
        @Override
        public void onResults(PacMap pacMap) {
            state = 10;
			//获取最终结果 
			//{"result":[{"confidence":0,"ori_word":"你 好 ","pinyin":"NI3 HAO3 ","word":"你好。"}]}
            String results = pacMap.getString(AsrResultKey.RESULTS_RECOGNITION);
            ZSONObject zsonObject = ZSONObject.stringToZSON(results);
            ZSONObject infoObject;
            if (zsonObject.getZSONArray("result").getZSONObject(0) instanceof ZSONObject) {
                infoObject = zsonObject.getZSONArray("result").getZSONObject(0);
                String resultWord = infoObject.getString("ori_word").replace(" ", "");
                result += resultWord;
            }
        }

		//中途识别结果
		//pacMap.getString(AsrResultKey.RESULTS_INTERMEDIATE)
        @Override
        public void onIntermediateResults(PacMap pacMap) {
            state = 9;
//            String result = pacMap.getString(AsrResultKey.RESULTS_INTERMEDIATE);
//            if (result == null)
//                return;
//            ZSONObject zsonObject = ZSONObject.stringToZSON(result);
//            ZSONObject infoObject;
//            if (zsonObject.getZSONArray("result").getZSONObject(0) instanceof ZSONObject) {
//                infoObject = zsonObject.getZSONArray("result").getZSONObject(0);
//                String resultWord = infoObject.getString("ori_word").replace(" ", "");
//                HiLog.info(TAG, "=========== 9 " + resultWord);
//            }
        }


        @Override
        public void onEnd() {
            state = 5;
			//当还在录音时,重新监听
            if (isStarted)
                asrClient.startListening(asrIntent);
        }

        @Override
        public void onEvent(int i, PacMap pacMap) {

        }

        @Override
        public void onAudioStart() {
            state = 2;

        }

        @Override
        public void onAudioEnd() {
            state = 3;
        }
    }

开启识别与停止识别的函数


    public void start() {
        if (!this.isStarted) {
            this.isStarted = true;
            asrClient.startListening(asrIntent);
            poolExecutor.submit(new AudioCaptureRunnable());
        }
    }

    public void stop() {
        this.isStarted = false;
        asrClient.stopListening();
        audioCaptureUtils.stop();
    }

  	//音频录制的线程
    private class AudioCaptureRunnable implements Runnable {
        @Override
        public void run() {
            byte[] buffers = new byte[BYTES_LENGTH];
			//开启录音
            audioCaptureUtils.start();
            while (isStarted) {
				//读取录音的PCM流
                int ret = audioCaptureUtils.read(buffers, 0, BYTES_LENGTH);
                if (ret <= 0) {
                    HiLog.error(TAG, "======Error read data");
                } else {
					//将录音的PCM流写入到语音识别服务中
					//若buffer的长度不为1280或640时,则需要手动处理成1280或640
                    asrClient.writePcm(buffers, BYTES_LENGTH);
                }
            }
        }
    }


识别结果是通过listener的回调获取的结果,所以我们在处理时是将结果赋值给result,通过getresult或getResultAndClear函数获取结果。

 public String getResult() {
        return result;
    }

    public String getResultAndClear() {
        if (this.result == "")
            return "";
        String results = getResult();
        this.result = "";
        return results;
    }

4.创建一个简易的JS UI,并通过JS调ServerAbility的能力调用Java

hml代码

<div class="container">
    <div>
        <button class="btn" @touchend="start">开启</button>
        <button class="btn" @touchend="sub">订阅结果</button>
        <button class="btn" @touchend="stop">关闭</button>
    </div>
    <text class="title">
        语音识别内容: {{ text }}
    </text>
</div>

样式代码

.container {
    flex-direction: column;
    justify-content: flex-start;
    align-items: center;
    width: 100%;
    height: 100%;
    padding: 10%;
}

.title {
    font-size: 20px;
    color: #000000;
    opacity: 0.9;
    text-align: left;
    width: 100%;
    margin: 3% 0;
}

.btn{
    padding: 10px 20px;
    margin:3px;
    border-radius: 6px;
}

js逻辑控制代码

//js调Java ServiceAbility的工具类
import { jsCallJavaAbility } from '../../common/JsCallJavaAbilityUtils.js';

export default {
    data: {
        text: ""
    },
	//开启事件
    start() {
        jsCallJavaAbility.callAbility("ControllerAbility",100,{}).then(result=>{
            console.log(result)
        })
    },
//关闭事件
    stop() {
        jsCallJavaAbility.callAbility("ControllerAbility",101,{}).then(result=>{
            console.log(result)
        })
        jsCallJavaAbility.unSubAbility("ControllerAbility",201).then(result=>{
            if (result.code == 200) {
                console.log("取消订阅成功");
            }
        })
    },
//订阅Java端结果事件
    sub() {
        jsCallJavaAbility.subAbility("ControllerAbility", 200, (data) => {
            let text = data.data.text
            text && (this.text += text)
        }).then(result => {
            if (result.code == 200) {
                console.log("订阅成功");
            }
        })
    }
}

ServerAbility

public class ControllerAbility extends Ability {
    AnswerRemote remote = new AnswerRemote();
    AsrUtils asrUtils;
	//订阅事件的委托
    private static HashMap<Integer, IRemoteObject> remoteObjectHandlers = new HashMap<Integer, IRemoteObject>();

    @Override
    public void onStart(Intent intent) {
        HiLog.error(LABEL_LOG, "ControllerAbility::onStart");
        super.onStart(intent);
	//初始化语音识别工具类
        asrUtils = new AsrUtils(this);
    }


    @Override
    public void onCommand(Intent intent, boolean restart, int startId) {
    }

    @Override
    public IRemoteObject onConnect(Intent intent) {
        super.onConnect(intent);
        return remote.asObject();
    }

    class AnswerRemote extends RemoteObject implements IRemoteBroker {
        AnswerRemote() {
            super("");
        }

        @Override
        public boolean onRemoteRequest(int code, MessageParcel data, MessageParcel reply, MessageOption option) {
            Map<String, Object> zsonResult = new HashMap<String, Object>();
            String zsonStr = data.readString();
            ZSONObject zson = ZSONObject.stringToZSON(zsonStr);
            switch (code) {
                case 100: {
			//当js发送code为100时,开启语音识别
                    asrUtils.start();
                    break;
                }
                case 101: {
			//当js发送code为101时,关闭语音识别
                    asrUtils.stop();
                    break;
                }
                case 200: {
			//当js发送code为200时,订阅获取识别结果事件
                    remoteObjectHandlers.put(200 ,data.readRemoteObject());
			//定时获取语音识别结果并返回JS UI                    
				getAsrText();
                    break;
                }
                default: {
                    reply.writeString("service not defined");
                    return false;
                }
            }
            reply.writeString(ZSONObject.toZSONString(zsonResult));
            return true;
        }

        @Override
        public IRemoteObject asObject() {
            return this;
        }
    }

    public void getAsrText() {
        new Thread(() -> {
            while (true) {
                try {
                    Thread.sleep(1 * 500);
                    Map<String, Object> zsonResult = new HashMap<String, Object>();
                    zsonResult.put("text",asrUtils.getResultAndClear());
                    ReportEvent(200, zsonResult);

                } catch (RemoteException | InterruptedException e) {
                    break;
                }
            }
        }).start();
    }

    private void ReportEvent(int remoteHandler, Object backData) throws RemoteException {
        MessageParcel data = MessageParcel.obtain();
        MessageParcel reply = MessageParcel.obtain();
        MessageOption option = new MessageOption();
        data.writeString(ZSONObject.toZSONString(backData));
        IRemoteObject remoteObject = remoteObjectHandlers.get(remoteHandler);
        remoteObject.sendRequest(100, data, reply, option);
        reply.reclaim();
        data.reclaim();
    }

}

至此简易的语音识别功能完毕。
相关演示:https://www.bilibili.com/video/BV1E44y177hv/
完整代码开源:https://gitee.com/panda-coder/harmonyos-apps/tree/master/AsrDemo

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已于2021-12-23 09:16:16修改
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